Catorce puntos

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Catorce puntos

Los Catorce Puntos fueron una serie de propuestas realizadas el 8 de enero de 1918 por el presidente estadounidense Woodrow Wilson al final de la Primera Guerra Mundial para que detuvieran el fuego y permitir la reconstrucción del continente.

Para esto redactó un discurso conocido como los Catorce Puntos, que no era más que una serie de propuestas que permitían desvanecer el fantasma de la guerra de todo el planeta. El discurso fue dado el 8 de enero de 1918 ante el Congreso de los EE.UU.

Dichos puntos son:

# Convenios abiertos y no diplomacia secreta en el futuro.
  1. Absoluta libertad de navegación en la paz y en la guerra fuera de las aguas jurisdiccionales, excepto cuando los mares quedasen cerrados por un acuerdo internacional.
  2. Desaparición, tanto como sea posible, de las barreras económicas.
  3. Garantías adecuadas para la reducción de los armamentos nacionales.
  4. Reajuste, absolutamente imparcial, de las reclamaciones coloniales, de tal manera que los intereses de los pueblos merezcan igual consideración que las aspiraciones de los gobiernos, cuyo fundamento habrá de ser determinado, es decir, el derecho a la autodeterminación de los pueblos.
  5. Evacuación de todo el territorio ruso, dándose a Rusia plena oportunidad para su propio desarrollo con la ayuda de las potencias.
  6. Plena restauración de Bélgica en su completa y libre soberanía.
  7. Liberación de todo el territorio francés y reparación de los perjuicios causados por Prusia en 1871.
  8. Reajuste de las fronteras italianas de acuerdo con el principio de la nacionalidad.
  9. Oportunidad para un desarrollo autónomo de los pueblos del Imperio Austrohúngaro.
  10. Evacuación de Rumanía, Serbia y Montenegro, concesión de un acceso al mar a Serbia y arreglo de las relaciones entre los estados balcánicos de acuerdo con sus sentimientos y el principio de nacionalidad.
  11. Seguridad de desarrollo autónomo de las nacionalidades no turcas del Imperio otomano, y el Estrecho de los Dardanelos libres para toda clase de barcos.
  12. Declarar a Polonia como un estado independiente, que además tenga acceso al mar.
  13. La creación de una asociación general de naciones, a constituir mediante pactos específicos con el propósito de garantizar mutuamente la independencia política y la integridad territorial, tanto de los Estados grandes como de los pequeños.
# Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view.
  1. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside territorial waters, alike in peace and in war, except as the seas may be closed in whole or in part by international action for the enforcement of international covenants.
  2. The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and the establishment of an equality of trade conditions among all the nations consenting to the peace and associating themselves for its maintenance.
  3. Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety.
  4. A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims, based upon a strict observance of the principle that in determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests of the populations concerned must have equal weight with the equitable government whose title is to be determined.
  5. The evacuation of all Russian territory and such a settlement of all questions affecting Russia as will secure the best and freest cooperation of the other nations of the world in obtaining for her an unhampered and unembarrassed opportunity for the independent determination of her own political development and national policy and assure her of a sincere welcome into the society of free nations under institutions of her own choosing; and, more than a welcome, assistance also of every kind that she may need and may herself desire. The treatment accorded Russia by her sister nations in the months to come will be the acid test of their good will, of their comprehension of her needs as distinguished from their own interests, and of their intelligent and unselfish sympathy.
  6. Belgium, the whole world will agree, must be evacuated and restored, without any attempt to limit the sovereignty which she enjoys in common with all other free nations. No other single act will serve as this will serve to restore confidence among the nations in the laws which they have themselves set and determined for the government of their relations with one another. Without this healing act the whole structure and validity of international law is forever impaired.
  7. All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions restored, and the wrong done to France by Prussia in 1871 in the matter of Alsace-Lorraine, which has unsettled the peace of the world for nearly fifty years, should be righted, in order that peace may once more be made secure in the interest of all.
  8. A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected along clearly recognizable lines of nationality.
  9. The people of Austria-Hungary, whose place among the nations we wish to see safeguarded and assured, should be accorded the freest opportunity to autonomous development.
  10. Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro should be evacuated; occupied territories restored; Serbia accorded free and secure access to the sea; and the relations of the several Balkan states to one another determined by friendly counsel along historically established lines of allegiance and nationality; and international guarantees of the political and economic independence and territorial integrity of the several Balkan states should be entered into.
  11. The Turkish portion of the present Ottoman Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty, but the other nationalities which are now under Turkish rule should be assured an undoubted security of life and an absolutely unmolested opportunity of autonomous development, and the Dardanelles should be permanently opened as a free passage to the ships and commerce of all nations under international guarantees.
  12. An independent Polish state should be erected which should include the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish populations, which should be assured a free and secure access to the sea, and whose political and economic independence and territorial integrity should be guaranteed by international covenant.
  13. A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.

El último punto contempla la creación de una asociación de naciones, lo que tomará forma como la Sociedad de Naciones.

Vea también

Enlaces externos y referencias

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